Wednesday, July 20, 2016

Remains

I read "The Buried Giant", by Kazuo Ishiguro (2015). My son had read it at the beach and lent me his trade paperback copy. It is 335 pages. It won all kind of "book of the year" awards last year.

The story is set in a straight up (Arthurian) fantasy world. You can tell it is written by a literary type, the language is beautiful. The story moves along surprisingly well, given that its 2 main characters are an old married couple. The main theme is remembering vs forgetting the past. Good and bad with both.

Ishiguro also wrote "The Remains of the Day", which was 1 of those Merchant-Ivory films you had to see. I also bought the movie "Never Let Me Go", based on 1 of his novels. It is near-future science fiction. I also bought "The White Countess", for which Ishguro wrote the screenplay.

Next I read "Remanance", by Jennifer Foehner Wells. The book is subtitled (Confluence Book 2). When I started reading the 1st of the series, my "bad writing" alarm got triggered. I've looked into that more, I hate being critical without knowing exactly why. But regardless, Ms. Wells' writing continues to improve rapidly.

Amazon says the print book is 496 pages? Wow, I would not have guessed that. Kudos to the author for creating such a page turner.

She has a nice sci-fi framework set up with lots of directions to take it. Her aliens are nicely alien? And who could not love a cephalopod protagonist? I was disappointed in the 1st book that the main adversary, who we have not encountered yet, was bugs - Hicks, "It's a bug hunt". But, there are interesting things you can do with interstellar insects: social insect behavior in general, and intelligence without consciousness.

So a quick read and a better ending, looking forward to the next one in the series.

Saturday, July 16, 2016

Harmony With Nature

1 of the 7 Basic Goods which together make up the Good Life, from "How Much Is Enough? Money and the Good Life", by Robert and Edward Skidelsky (British, an economist and a philosopher), blogged here. is Harmony With Nature. I recently saw another list of basic goods which did not seem to have such a concept. The Skidelsky's name a garden as the paramount example of Harmony With Nature.

My wife has always had flower gardens. Lately she has been cultivating dozens of varieties of hybrid irises and lilies. The lilies have been been blooming like crazy lately. Here's some recent pictures of her beds.

Her Asiatic lilies just started blooming a few days ago. These have a strong odor that originally I did not care for, but I have gotten to like it OK.

A few years ago she created her experimental butterfly garden. Towards the back left is a volunteer butterfly bush that has been very popular.

The only big butterflies we get consistently are tiger swallowtail like this male.

We also get a lot of bees of all kinds. They also like to drink from the bird bath. If you do not have a birdbath, I strongly recommend getting one. Birds, insects, squirrels, and chipmunks all drink from it. I had been told that it will also help keep the squirrels from eating your tomatoes, but that doesn't seem to be working out for one of my daughters. Recognize that, like bird feeders, putting a bird bath out is a commitment. The critters will come to rely on it, so you must keep up your end of the bargain.

She also recently found a woman out by Georgetown with a hosta farm. The back of our yard is very shady, so it is becoming a hosta garden.


The 1st spring after I retired I (actualy Carlos Villanova and his guys) put in a vegetable garden. It is 1x2 railroad ties (8'x16'), and was started with 1/2 ton of topsoil and compost. It is now in its 3rd year. It only gets about 7 hours of direct sun/day, but does pretty well anyway. I did not realize when I got into it how much bending over was involved :-O

I started early this year. January 15 I covered it in a wheelbarrow-full of compost from our heap; turned it over with a shovel (took around 40 minutes); and spread 120# of cow manure over it.

March 15 it raked out easily, and I planted lettuce, mixed greens, spinach, carrots (1st time), and snow peas from seed. It froze 4 times after the lettuce, greens, and spinach started coming up, but they did fine. We got maybe 12 gallon bags of lettuce, greens & spinach and I got in a habit of having a big salad for lunch. We got 3-4 gallon bags of snow peas, which we throw into our veggie mix on the grill.

April 1 I planted 6 broccoli, 6 brussel sprouts, and 6 radicchio (1st time) starts. The broccoli are producing 2ndary heads now. The brussel sprouts are just getting close to harvesting. The radicchio has been a great addition to the salads. Radicchio is a member of the chicory family and is a perennial. All 6 plants are growing their 2nd head now.

May 1 I planted 2 cucumbers vines, 6 tomatoes (2 roma, 2 grape, 2 black krim heirlooms), 4 peppers (1 japapeno, 2 green bell, 1 red bell), 1 yellow squash, and 1 zucchini squash. May was very wet and the cucumbers were getting some kind of rust on them, so I planted 2 more vines at the other end of the garden - my granddaughter loved the cucumbers sliced with hummus last year, and I wanted to make sure I got some. Of course, all 4 vines are doing well, despite the rust, and I am harvesting about 1 cuc/day. I've harvested a few grape and roma tomatoes - but 1 of my "grape" tomatoes turned out to be some kind of steak tomato. I've gotten a few squash, but the bore has already killed the yellow squash, the zucchini will probably follow soon. I got a few peppers, but I don't think I get enough sun for the peppers to thrive.

I also planted some beets from seed at my wife's request. They look like they are doing OK, may have to try to harvest some soon. Growing stuff underground is more challenging. I didn't thin my carrots near enough - in general, I find it hard to thin stuff, I'm afraid I'll get rid of too much. It is definitely a learning experience.

Last year I tried planting kale and swiss chard seed August 1 as a fall crop. But I found that, after September, the garden only gets 3-4 hours of sun/day, so they didn't do anything. This year I tried putting kale & swiss chard in right after the lettuce and spinach were done, around June 15, but again, nothing. It's too hot for them. So I guess I'll have to try them early, with the lettuce et al, next year.

It is of course great to eat stuff right out of the garden. It is also nice to share with your neighbors. I gave away lots of lettuce and will do the same with the cucumbers and tomatoes. I got some nice radishes and onions from my neighbor across the street.

But the best part is how the grandkids interact with it. Last summer, my grandson, 13 months old, just walking for a month, started picking grape tomatoes and popping them in his mouth. Totally instinctive behavior. He would juice them in his mouth, swallow the juice, and spit the seeds and skins out onto his belly - nice! And my 5 YO granddaughter, who last year loved the cucs sliced with hummus, this year took a cucumber and ate the whole thing like an apple! She was also picking snow peas off the vine and eating them. Seeing them interact with "food in the raw" like that definitely makes it all worthwhile.

Monday, July 11, 2016

More Shamanism

I'm not sure I wound up with shamanism as a minor theme here. A shamanistic convergence, I guess.

I read "Shaman", by Kim Stanley Robinson (2013). This book came out after the most excellent "2312". It is 530 pages. I'm not sure how I missed it. It is not science fiction or fantasy. It is the coming-of-age story of a (Cro-Magnon) human named Loon in southern Europe 40,000 years ago. The dating is pretty precise, because: a) he was an early cave painter; and b) there were still Neanderthal around.

Looking this up, it's amazing that humans and Neanderthals overlapped in southern Europe for only 5,000 years - from 45,000 years ago, when humans entered Europe, to 40,000 years ago, at which point the Neanderthals had all disappeared. The implication is, it only took us 5,000 years to wipe them out.

Robinson goes into great detail on hunter-gatherer life. In the very beginning there are several pages on how to light a fire in a storm.

Part of the shaman's training consists of being the keeper of the pack's oral tradition: he must memorize the 5 great tales and the 10 minor tales. We get excerpts of some of these tales as blank verse, nice.

1 small detail I liked - Loon is taught to name his injuries. Somehow, as an aging person, this seems like a reasonable thing to do.

Another thing I liked was a discussion of trail finding. I have always enjoyed following trails, and felt that it was one of our innate skills, developed by evolution over the last million years or so. I've often thought that the mathematics of trail-finding - minimizing the gradient function, I think - should be the basis of many search algorithms where you are trying to find a local minimum. Here are 2 passages that describe following trails:

I'm a straightwalker, Pippi said when Look asked about the trails. - I mean, I run a nice clean route. I don't go straight at the land if it doesn't make sense, but I don't like extravagance. Ups and downs are usually not bad enough to justify a divagation. Anyway I look for the best way. I'm always looking to see if there's a better way than the one I've used before, if I'm where I've gone before. And if I'm in new land, well, it's the best thing there is, finding a good way.

...

He put his mind to seeing the best way downcanyon. He could to this as well as any of them. In all canyons there was a ramp of easiest travel, inlaid into the jumble of rocks and trees in ways that could be hard to find. The best way might zigzag from sidewall to sidewall, or run as straight as a crack. Sometimes it was overgrown by trees or brush, especially if it was an alder canyon; still it would reveal itself to the eye if one took the trouble to look for it.

There is not a lot of conflict in the story. There is 1 long conflict that occupies maybe 1/3-1/2 of the book but generates a totally minimal body count. This vision of prehistoric times is somewhat at odds with that I would have expected, based on, say, Stephen Pinker's "The Better Angels of our Nature", where Pinker noted that, "Most of the "icemen" found preserved from 10s of 1000s of years ago have some kind of injury likely inflicted by another human." (paraphrased in my blog post).

Regardless, Robinson is truly one of our finest modern writers, and this is a great read.

Next I read "The Supreme Shaman", by Mark Heinz. Mark is my (3 years) younger brother. He has written 6 novels, this is his latest. it is 235 pages. I would classify it as urban fantasy. The protagonist is 1/2 Native American, and was pronounced the Supreme Shaman by the shaman (his grandfather) who trained him. The shamanistic powers are neat - they made me think of Dr. Strange. His strongest power is healing, which makes him the natural adversary for our oh-so-bad guy, who is a psychic assassin. The action moves from Big Sky country in the US to Brunei - the locales seem well researched.

The pacing of the book is excellent. The battle of good shaman vs very evil sorcerer is well done. Some of the background material is very good as well:

  • a discussion of how primitive peoples did not believe in natural death except in the very old, but rather felt that unnatural non-accidental deaths were caused by sorcery, which has been noted in this blog before;
  • a discussion of how after WW2, the US military was able to use operant conditioning to make soldiers much more effective killers.
This was a quick (2 sittings) and fun read, I recommend it.

Friday, July 01, 2016

Shamanistic Sigils

I was walking the Beaumont walking trail heading south. Just past the Beaumont Post Office, I came across the paintings shown above. If you drive the loop around the Post Office parking lot, they are on your right at the end of the parking lot.

I really like these. IMO, some 14-15 YO in our neighborhood is a real artist (more below). I tweeted this picture and referred to them as "shamanistic glyphs". A glyph is actually a single character in a set - a better description would have been "shamanistic sigils".

The left image is of a white tree with bleeding leaves, enclosed in, an egg penetrated by several sperm??? Or cherries in a pie??? Somehow I am getting "nature distressed".

The central image is where it gets shamanistic. The 4 spirals are self-hypnosis devices - welcome to a shamanistic trance. The central white test pattern is reminiscent of voodoo veves.

The right image I remembered as more mathematical than it is - a contrast to the left image, creating a nature vs technology narrative. On reexamination, it is a single spiral. The 4 ovals can give an impression of depth, to where the spiral is descending into the concrete. I have no clue what the green & white objects in the lower left are. This and the central image also are reminiscent of mandalas.

Ha ha. Of course you know that my interpretations of this art are complete BS.

I was privileged on several occasions to do multi-hour museum tours with my oldest daughter Erica, who is an artist. I remember in particular spending 4-5 hours at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, when she was a senior in high school and was going to spend the next night in an MIT dorm. I also remember several hours at the Met, which I blogged about.

In a small measure, she taught me to see through her artist's eyes. 1 thing I believe I learned is, art is like science fiction - it is all about edge, about making people think new thoughts, get a different take on reality. The, what, urban tribalism of these paintings screamed "art" to me.

But, getting back to BS. This multi-media piece that Erica did in high school has hung in every office I have worked in for close to 20 years. It may or may not be titled "Creation".

I was like, "Erica, I get it! The left is mathematics, the upper right is physics, the lower right is biology! Right?" The response: "No, dad. It's art."

So my analysis is BS, but it was still very pleasant to encounter what I would consider real art in the wild.

Wednesday, June 15, 2016

Jubilee

I really like what John Oliver recently did.


They set up a debt-collection company and purchased $15M of medical debt for $60K - 0.4¢ purchases $1 of debt - less than a penny on a dollar. They then transferred the debt to RIP Medical Debt for forgiveness. I donated $100 to RIP Medical Debt - at 250x, that will forgive $25K in debt. Nice!

This struck me as close to being a jubilee! Don't know why, I love that word and concept. Every 50 years, you have

a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. In the Book of Leviticus, a Jubilee year (Hebrew: יובל‎‎ yūḇāl) is mentioned to occur every fiftieth year, during which slaves and prisoners would be freed, debts would be forgiven and the mercies of God would be particularly manifest.
Ah yes, manifest mercies. Nice! I tweet #jubilee whenever I get a chance - definitely not trending, oops.

So is the concept of jubilee part of a post-scarcity utopia (PSU)? No, it's not. It is a palliative in our current system on the financialization of the working class, as described by Paul Mason in his recent book "Postcapitalism", blogged here. Late in a business cycle capitalism is mostly extractive, as opposed to early in the business cycle, when it is mostly creative. A capitalist who might have used capital to build a factory to produce something, creating jobs, now opens a bank or, better yet, a payday loan company, and through initiation fees, late fees, all kinds of fees, and interest on their users, can get a better ROI on their $ than from the factory route. Sad!

Interesting, the Hebrew version of jubilee was originally 7 x 7 = 49 years, that got rounded up to 50?!?

Discussing jubilee with The Google recently, I came across a reference to the Rolling Jubilee that was an offshoot of Occupy Wall Street. Here's an article on them. They are focusing on student loan debt.

Then my daughter Erica, who worked with Occupy, pointed me at her tweet:

Aw, sad that @LastWeekTonight didn't acknowledge @StrikeDebt's influence and help on the debt buying episode.
Strike Debt, another Occupy offshoot working on debt forgiveness (or debt resistance), apparently walked the Last Week Tonight staff through the whole process of creating the debt-collection company, etc. But at the last minute, HBO decided that it would be ... too partisan and/or dividing to give the props to Occupy? Who exactly would be offended by mentioning Occupy? This seems like a totally unnecessary and chickenshit decision by HBO.

RIP Medical Debt focused on medical debt because there would be no question of "does the person deserve the help?" You know, worrying about that question wastes so many $$$. Studies show that social programs have extremely low, 1-2%, fraud rates. But, more people would take issue with, say, forgiving gambling debts. Rolling Jubilee focusing on student loans is probably felt to be laudable by most people. But, credit card debt, other?

All these issues would be so much more easy to address if we got rid of all the moral judgements. Yes, the bible sez "By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground". Like a lot of things in the bible, maybe a good idea 4000 years ago, completely inapplicable now. What was the point of all that automation otherwise?

The US is the only country in the developed world where anyone has medical debt, so with a decent healthcare system, there would be no medical debt. The same is true for student loan debt. So get rid of those 2, work on everything else. Don't worry about what kind of debt it is - don't needlessly complicate the system.

What are we talking here, total? US consumer debt is $12T. Nice, here's a great source of data! Only $455 billion is seriously delinquent. Divided by 250 = $1.8B - chump change for Bill Gates & his $B buddies.

One downside of this is that, as debt gets bought up, supply and demand will make its cost rise. Well, maybe by then, Elizabeth Warren and the Consumer Finance Protection Bureau will have reined in the worst of the payday loan company abuses.

So, a jubilee is a palliative. I don't care, I still love a jubilee!

Tuesday, June 14, 2016

Post-Scarcity Utopia

What do I mean by post-scarcity utopia (PSU)? It is tagged in this blog as "economy of plenty". The recent post on The Plan referenced universal basic income as one part of a PSU. What other components are there?
  • Universal health care, with $0 copay, deductible, anything.
  • Universal free education, to whatever level is attainable by the student, with particular emphasis on early childhood education. This should include trades and crafts.
  • Universal access to capital for all forms of entrepreneurs. Kickstarter et al somewhat do this now. But in a PSU, the system would assure that ideas with enough popular support always got funding.
With regard to defining PSU, I think of the definition of the Good Life, based on Basic Goods, from "How Much Is Enough? Money and the Good Life", by Robert and Edward Skidelsky (British, an economist and a philosopher), blogged here. They define the following 4 requirements for a Basic Good: it must be universal; final; sui generis (unique); and indespensible. They list 7 Basic Goods: health; security; respect; personality; harmony with nature; friendship; and leisure. See the post for more info.

I was wondering if novelty was a Basic Good. Maybe it's not universal? No, we are all curious monkeys. Also, where does being a Citizen Scientist fit? Both of these probably span personality, harmony with nature, and leisure.

Going back to The Plan. The Fed is doing basically nothing - we are in a liquidity trap, monetary policy can do nothing. The worst do-nothing Congress in 100 years is not going to use fiscal stimulus. So the 2 tools of Keynesian economics are off the table. Time for something new!

Keynes talked of the end of capitalism. Capitalism would have done it's job. We would have all the capital we need to accomplish world prosperity. I am wondering the following:

Does "we have all the capital we need" mean that we can create enough (helicopter) money to fix the world's inequality problems without kicking off inflation? That the current $250T of capital in the world will dwarf the money we add?
If you use this approach, no tax reform! Let the poor catch up a little with new money, while seeing if The Fed can meet its 2% inflation goal.

Thursday, June 09, 2016

The Plan

After I retired close to 4 years ago, I decided to study (slowly) economics. I probably should have taken an online course of "Introduction to Macroeconomics", rather than reading Adam Smith "The Wealth of Nations", Keynes "General Theory", Piketty "Capital in the 21st Century", etc. I downloaded the MIT OCW open-source courseware & textbook and never did anything with it. I bought a used hardcopy of Samuelson, ditto. I think I have a basic understanding of most of the concepts, but no skills with any of the tools of economists.

The reason I decided to study economics was to figure out, how can we live in a post-scarcity utopia? How can we live in an Iain M. Banks Culture novel? Goddam it, I want my grandchildren (currently 2.7), and everybody's grandchildren, to live in a bright shiny future, not the past, and not Hunger Games!

My 40 years as a software developer/architect/manager/executive/geek left me with the certainty, deep down in my gut, that money === software. So, we just have to figure out how to tweak the system parameters to get us where we want to be. Yes, the more compulsive/sociopathic of us want to rack up logarithmically larger scores than most of us, but, no worries, just pay your taxes, it's all good!

I have not found where or how to do economic modeling, it's still a WIP.

Meanwhile, nevertheless, here is My Plan The Plan to transition the world to a post-scarcity utopia, postcapitalism, Star Trek economy. Ha ha, or more accurately, to Universal Basic Income (UBI), generally considered a good 1st step.

  1. The Fed has been way below the 2% inflation target for years. The 2008 recovery programs including QE increased the money supply by 3x. Conservative economics have ever since then been howling "Hyperinflation tomorrow" - but meanwhile, back in reality, deflation is the real problem.
  2. We are currently in a demand subrecession (not quite a recession). Of course, according to conservative economists, demand recessions are impossible because of Say's Law. My opinion of the root cause of this is, the gouging of middle class wages and the middle class in general, beginning with Reagan/Thatcher in 1980.
  3. So, let's increase demand via helicopter money. Helicopter money has been lately appearing in the economics blogs 1/week at least. The Fed increases the money supply again, but this time, instead of giving the money to banks, who largely just sat on it, we give it to each and every US citizen, regardless of current wealth.
  4. When Bernie proposed free college for all, people griped, "I don't want to be paying for {random oligarch}'s child's college". It's a dumb argument. Applying the program to the 1% increases the cost of the program by 1%. Creating a bureaucracy to means test and administer eligibility concerns increases the cost by who knows how many %?
  5. The helicopter money payment is $1-3K/month. Say we start at $2K/month. The Fed then monitors the inflation rate, with a target of 2% +/- 0.1%. 1.9-2.1%. If inflation hits 2.1% then decrease the helicopter money by 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 per month, whatever algorithm is deemed best.
  6. If inflation stays below 1.9%, increase the helicopter money by an appropriate algorithm.
  7. As that stabilizes, add a 2nd system goal besides 2% inflation: 3% +/- 0.1 growth. That would mean 1% net growth. Maybe, as we get a couple decades down the road, we could look at tweaking that upwards. But meanwhile, let's control growth, to try to let the planet cope with the climate crisis, hopefully with our help.
  8. So if inflation is < 2.1% and GDP growth is < 2.9% the helicopter money goes up, etc.
  9. Given that the system stabilizes, you then rename it from "helicopter money" to "Universal Basic Income (UBI)". (So, UBI == open-ended helicopter money?)
  10. OH NO HOW DO WE PAY FOR IT??? Well, if you feel compelled to pay for it, then, let's return to that decade most loved by conservatives - the 50s - and restore top income tax rates of 92%, and have corporations paying 30% of the nation's taxes instead of 6%.
  11. But, the totally more enlightened & elegant solution is, don't pay for it! Just print the money! Call it seigniorage if you need to, but you don't have to call it anything. The $ is the de facto currency of the world (for maybe another decade or so), if we charge a 2% or 0.2% or 0.02% seigniorage fee on every $ we create, who in the world is going to complain?
  12. Didn't the latest budget plan (no idea where it is in the morass that is our do-nothing Congress) include the Fed creating money from nothing to fund infrastructure? So the precedent may have already been set.
  13. Please correct me if I am wrong: I believe the only problem anyone talks about with helicopter money is inflation. So if we build a system with a helicopter money / inflation feedback loop, how can inflation hurt us?
  14. Problems. The greatest tragedy in economic thinking of the 20th century was when Milton Friedman's prediction of stagflation following the Arab Oil Embargo gave his theories credence, leading to Reagan/Thatcher, supply-side economics, austerity, and the rest of the clueless conservative economic crap.
  15. The system sustained a huge 1-time shock: oil prices go up 3x due to the embargo. Inflation snake just swallowed a watermelon and did not deal with it well.
  16. So I guess the point re problems is, if some crazy weird crap happens, all predictions/bets are off. But when is that not true?
Note, we are retasking the Fed from its normal jobs of controlling inflation & producing full employment. They have raised interest rates 1 time in the last 8 years! So their current tasks seem to be no-ops. I think this is a sign of being in the liquidity trap. And, as our dysfunctional Congress will not ever carry out the 2nd tool of Keynesian economics, fiscal stimulus, let's give the Fed something to do to get us out of secular stagnation!

Where to implement The Plan? There are 3 requirements for a country to implement The Plan:

  1. Must be in a demand (sub)recession.
  2. Must be in the liquidity trap.
  3. Must have its own currency.
The country that screams for this is Japan. They have been in the liquidity trap for over 3 decades. Abenomics appears to be a failure. Try The Plan! My concern tho, is that I'm not sure that the liquidity trap is Japan's real problem. Their horrible demographics, coupled with their aversion to immigrants, might be their real problem. The question is, can Japan's condition be characterized as a demand (sub)recession? Do they meet requirement #1?

Meanwhile, the EuroZone is pretty much screwed. Until they add EuroBonds and EuroTaxes to the Euro and create a complete Euro-based economic system, I don't see how they can do much. Meanwhile, Greece in particular continues to get screwed.

But, the EU countries that are not in the EuroZone (not on the euro) potentially meet the requirements. 9 countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) are EU members but do not use the euro. The more recent EU entrants like Croatia have been totally smart and kept their own currencies (kunas!). They've joined the EU but not the EuroZone. At this point, joining the EuroZone is like inviting Germany to have its way with you - see, "Greece". :-(

Switzerland is not in the EU or the EEA (European Economic Area) & still has its own currency. Switzerland voted down UBI 77-23 on June 5. Maybe their economic slump is not as much as others? A country as prosperous and egalitarian as Switzerland is not the best 1st place for UBI.

Australia also meets the requirements.

The US meets the requirements. How can we make this happen?

Any country who meets the 3 requirements above that is not the US - owner of the world's default currency - has a additional implementation detail added to their system: the helicopter money/inflation feedback loop must also include the valuation of their currency against the standard currencies - $, euro, yen, (yuan) - in the feedback loop.

I would love to see The Plan tried in African, Asian, and South American countries. But, I have no idea where they are on the above 3+ requirements. Basic income trials in a few African countries have been very successful.

Wow, easy-peasy, yes?

On a personal note, my wife & I visited Croatia 2x, while our youngest daughter & her husband were living and teaching in Zagreb for 3 years. My grandson was born there. We visited 4-5 other places in Croatia, it is a beautiful country! And that comes from someone who lives in the most beautiful state in the US, KY!

And, I will note that, in what may be a glimmer of professionalism, I sent this post off to my friend since college Charles G. St. Pierre aka Greg, who blogs as Another Accidental Economist, for review. Thanks, Greg, for your help.